As you can see, there is a marked difference of opinion. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the self-perception and the subjective and objective measures of acme, peak forces of man or old age, decay determined not only by chronological age. Essential and in fact are the factors of a different order: socioeconomic status, educational level, specific professional activities, and many others. In this regard, the development of modern psychology increasingly adopted an opinion (G.Krayg, 2000), which is precisely to indicate the developmental stages of adult humans is difficult, if not impossible.
To understand the life cycle and the major phases which form it takes a certain sequence of state transitions, one-pointedness and the irreversibility of the lifetime, ie, the topological characteristics of the time. However, it should take into account the duration of the existence of an individual, determined the total duration of life for all individuals looking man – metric characteristic of the life cycle and its individual moments. These moments of transformation – genetic transitions from one stage of development to another age – should be evaluated as discrete values that have a particular significance for the entire life cycle (critical point of development). Determination of the duration of each of these phenomena development (phases and discrete moments) suggests compulsory registration: a) heterochrony functional and personal change, and b) the age and the individual variability in the context of the specific historical conditions of human life. It also requires the establishment of upper and lower limits of each of the phases, identifying the highest concentration of specific features of a particular age, which also means fixing the qualitative specificity of the optima of each phase and tracking features that characterize the transition from one phase of development to another age.
Control questions and tasks
1. What do you know copyrights periodization age of human development?
2. What converge and diverge in different classifications of determining the boundaries of age periods?
3. Why is it difficult to specify the exact boundaries of the different age periods of adulthood?
4. On the basis of published data, as well as their personal experiences provide examples of what period of “acme” of man as a person and a subject of activity may be different from the same period in terms of individuality.
5. Analyze given you examples and justify the reasons for this discrepancy.
Ananev BG Selected psychological works. Moscow, 1980.
Craig G. Developmental Psychology. St. Petersburg., 2000.
Mukhina B.C. Psychology. Moscow, 1998.
Psychology of man from birth to death / Ed. A.A.Reana. St. Petersburg., 2001.
Feldstein DI Life growing up. Moscow, 1999.
© Rean AA, 2002
2. The main characteristics of the person
in different periods of his age development
1. The main characteristics of a person in infancy.
2. The main characteristics of the person in the preschool years.
3. The main characteristics of a person in the early school years.
4. The main characteristics of the person in adolescence and young adulthood.
5. The main characteristics of the person during the period of early adulthood.
6. The main characteristics of a person during the middle adulthood.
7. The main characteristics of a person during late adulthood and old age.
Keywords: cognitive processes, feelings and emotions, motives, needs, behavior, self-concept
- Cognitive processes – the subjective forms of human reflection of objective reality. The main types of these forms, giving man the knowledge about the world and about himself – the mental processes of sensation, perception, memory, imagination, thinking;
- Feeling – a special kind of emotional experiences, wearing a clearly defined objective in nature and characterized by a relatively high resistance (for example, a sense of love for the country);
- Emotions – subjective reactions in humans (eg, joy or fear) the effects of internal and external stimuli, reflecting their importance in the form of direct experience;
- Motives – motives that cause human activity. Some of the motifs are the needs and instincts, drives and emotions, and goals;
- The need – the need or lack of something necessary to maintain the functioning of the body, the personality, the subject, a community of people, internal stimulus activity;
- The behavior – the system responses in the form of a man of simple and complex actions, deeds and acts due reflection and evaluation in his mental world influences, the source of which is the reality around him, and he himself;
- “Self-concept” – the collection of all existing human representations of himself as an individual, and the individual stakeholders;
- Self-actualization – realization of human goals that he as a person and as a subject of set himself based on his understanding of the meaning of life and their abilities.
The main characteristics of a person in infancy
Infancy (birth to two years). In the early stages of cognitive development in the first place is the development of the processes that allow human contact with the environment through visual images. Immediately after birth, the baby is more developed skin sensitivity, enough highly developed olfactory and gustatory sensitivity. The development of vision and hearing takes place gradually over the period of infancy.
After 6 months of life, the child begins to elements of the speech communication.
At the end of the first – the beginning of the second year of life is a transition to a period of initial language acquisition. The need for verbal communication is one of the vital needs of the child.
The development of thinking takes place in this age of multiple steps: synthesis, speech development, comparison.
By the end of the second year of life, a child’s memory reaches the level of development, ensuring further growth of all mental processes.
In the first months of life of the baby is only the presence of involuntary attention. The beginnings of voluntary attention typically begin by the end of the first – the beginning of the second year of life.
Development of emotional sphere of the child is the most important factor in its communication with the outside world. The emergence of complex recovery after the crisis shows a newborn and early development of social emotions. The development of empathy in children observed at the end of the first year of life. In the second year of the baby, due to various reasons and circumstances, begins active manifestation of negative emotions, including fear and emotion.
Formation of the motivational sphere is thus: a child of this age is experiencing not only the basic physiological needs – food, drink, warmth, etc., but also a strong need for affiliation, safe in communication, new experiences.
Deprivation of these needs creates a real threat to both mental and physical health, and subsequently may also affect the success of their social adaptation.
Beginning of the formation of motivational activity of the child is the behavior associated with the onset of the need for new experiences. The process of development and complexity of this need leads the development of other socially determined human needs. It should be noted that the development of the child needs not provided by itself, and it needs a special organization of the adult.